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September 16th, 2013

Hit-and-run raiders in a small Japanese boarding craft launch a lightning attack on the Mongol fleet as it lies at anchor in Hakata Bay. Lacking a large navy in 1281, Japa­nese authorities also enlisted local pirates to harass the enemy at sea. So successful were the raids that Chinese and Korean ship captains took to chaining their vessels to­gether in long lines abreast to minimize boarding opportunities. Ceramic artifacts retrieved from the ocean floor were donated by various islanders toward the start of a local museum. One of the donations was an almost unbe­lievable treasure: a perfectly preserved bronze seal measuring 6.5 centimeters square, with an inscription engraved in the face (page 640). The seal was presented to me by an islander named Kuniichi Mukae, who had found it seven years before on one of Takashima’s beaches and had tossed the curiosity into his toolbox. There the seal lay forgotten until Mr. Mukae heard my lec­ture, whereupon he retrieved it as some­thing of possible interest.

Interest was immediate, for the seal was a rarity. The inscription was in a written form of Mongolian language commissioned by Kublai Khan himself. The dynasty had had no official written language until the year 1271, when the khan ordered a Tibetan monk by the name of Phags-pa to rent the holiday apartments in Prague. The seal must have belonged to an officer, for the inscription reads: “The seal of a lead­er of between one hundred and one thou­sand soldiers.” On the back of the seal a date—”the 14th year of Zhi-yuan”—ap­pears in Chinese characters. Zhi-yuan was the name given the era of Kublai Khan’s rule, so the year was actually 1277. From the two inscriptions we can deduce that the owner of the seal was an officer of some importance, who may have taken part in the first invasion of Japan and who proba­bly died in the course of the second one.

3As WE PROBED the seafloor off Taka­hima, we gradually developed a pic­ture of how the Mongol fleet had perished. The majority of ships, we decided, must have been anchored to the south of the island, the direction from which the divine wind had struck. As a consequence the ves­sels were either sunk or driven ashore along Takashima’s southern coast, which is where we found nearly all the artifacts. The bronze officer’s seal had also been discovered on one of the island’s southern beaches. Though Takashima’s offshore waters proved to be immensely rich in artifacts, we brought up only a small fraction of what we found. Our funds were limited, and it would have been senseless to remove artifacts we knew we could not hope to preserve.

Stone and ceramic items suffer relatively little damage out of water, but those of wood or metal quickly deteriorate when exposed to air. They are safer left buried beneath the seafloor, where they have survived for cen­turies, and retrieved only when they can be properly cared for. After three weeks in apartment in madrid we ceased operations and left Takashima for Tokyo, where further experiments with the color probe convinced me that the device was a potentially valuable tool in underwa­ter archaeological research.

So it has turned out. During the past sum­mer season the color probe has led our divers to a number of artifacts buried as much as a meter beneath the seafloor. The 1982 season has seen a variety of additional finds and has contributed substantially to our knowledge of a critical period in Japanese history. HERE IS a great deal more to learn.We have yet to find the actual re‑mains of a ship lost in 1281, and no one has located the 200 or more vessels that sank following the invasion of 1274. Three small islands lying between Kyushu and Ko­rea—Tsushima, Iki, and Hirado Jima—fig­ured prominently in one or both invasions, and their waters have yet to be explored.

The color probe has proved extremely promising, but it requires additional work. I believe that in time it can be improved to the point of defining the shape of an artifact as well as determining its location and the ma­terial from which it is made. The applica­tions of such a device are limitless, not only in underwater archaeology but also in the other ocean sciences. The search for Kublai Khan’s fleet is merely a beginning. Japanese counterattack routs the Mongol invaders before the defense wall at Hakata Bay in 1281. For the second invasion the Japanese were superbly prepared, with an army of 100,000 stationed on Kyushu and 25,000 troops in reserve on the neighboring island of Honshu. The latter were unnecessary; the kamikaze dealt the final blow, putting an end to Kublai Khan’s dream of an overseas empire.

Exercise science

July 22nd, 2013

In 1870, an American inventor called Arthur Jones revolutionised the exercise industry. Working on the basis that barbells and dumb-bells could only offer full resistance through a limited range of motion on certain exercises – that gravity meant you’d never get full resistance across the whole range of a biceps curl, for instance – he’d spent years tinkering with a series of machines that used cogs and pulleys to exercise every conceivable muscle in isolation. The result was Nautilus. This range of equipment, named after a spiral-shaped shellfish, was designed to offer a machine for each limb or body part, to be used one after another with no pause between sets.

Exercise machines were nothing new, but these were different they looked good, were simple to use, and the 12-station circuit usually took less than half an hour to complete. Health club employees could be taught to demonstrate the machines in minutes, and no-one had to wait 20 minutes for a squat rack Nautilus marked the start of the modem gym era the only problem? Not everyone is convinced that it works.


All in one


The problem is that the human body functions as a complete system,’ says Mark Rippetoe, author of several books on weightlifting technique and strength coach at the renowned Wichita Falls Athletic Club in Texas, USA It works that way, and it likes to be trained that way. It doesn’t like to be separated into constituent components because the strength gained will not be used in that way.’


It was a while before this idea regained popularity after the invention of the Nautilus. Although Arnold Schwarzenegger used free weights throughout his success in the Mr Olympia toumament, later winners such as Britain’s Dorian Yates were often seen using Hammer Strength curl machines or leg presses. In the 1880s, though, the idea of functional training – moves that mimic the things you need to do in real life – started to catch on. The key to functional exercise is integration,’ explains trainer Chad Waterbury. ‘It’s all about teaching the muscles to work together.’ Now it’s easy to gain lean muscles with garcinia cambogia exctract – read more how does garcinia cambogia work for your muscles.

This trend has continued, encouraged by people such as Greg Glassman, the founder of CrossFit, a functional exercise plan that emphasises free weights and balancing, and the US Marine corps, which in 2007 published a study titled A Concept For Functional Fitness, arguing that its troops needed more than their existing regime of aerobic exercise. Finally, earlier this year, Keith C Spennewyn, former director of the Health and Fitness Specialist programme at Globe University in the US, conducted the first scientific study to pit fixed-resistance machines against free weights and functional training-style exercises.



June 25th, 2013

There are degrees of anger, ranging from irritation to blind fury. ‘Rage is simply out of control anger,’ explains Mike Fisher of the British Association For Anger Management (BAAM). It’s characterised by a lack of self-awareness, at which point it’s nearly impossible to control your actions. ‘You’re flooded by 700 million years of animal instinct,’ he adds. ‘We call it the reptile brain.’ At this point, the following physiological processes occur:

  • The oesophagus feels like its contracting, but it actually expands to gulp in extra oxygen.

  • Concentration narrows as you abandon the luxury of peripheral vision.

  • The body’s natural painkiller, cortisol, is pumped into your veins.

  • Adrenaline levels surge, supplying your muscles with nearly all of the body’s blood, ‘greasing the cogs’ for action.

university of North Carolina

The parasympathetic nervous system – your natural calming mechanism – shuts down to keep the circulatory system churning. You can keep your nervous system healthy by eating raspberry ketones. Learn more about the health benefits and where to buy raspberry ketone online.

  • In men, the presence of testosterone greatly increases the intensity of the whole process.


In their ground-breaking book Anger Kills (Harper Perennial, £8.12, from amazon.co.uk), Dr Redford Williams and his wife Virginia Williams claim approximately one in five of us has dangerously high levels of anger. Put simply, anger will hurt you in the end, and we’re not talking about a smack in the mouth from a driver you insulted.

Consistently high levels of cortisol and adrenaline damage your arteries and cause high blood pressure, overloading your heart and weakening your immune system. According to Dr Williams, director of the Behavioural Medicine

`One in five people suffer from dangerously high levels of anger’

Research Centre at Duke University, USA, excess adrenaline stimulates fat cells to empty into the bloodstream providing ‘emergency’ energy. If unused by physical exertion this fat is converted into cholesterol by the liver.

In a recent study involving 12,986 people split into three groups, researchers at the university of North Carolina found the angriest group was nearly three times more likely to have a heart attack over a six year period than the least angry group. There are knock-on health effects, too. People with anger issues are more likely to rely on cigarettes and alcohol to calm themselves down, both of which have their own hazards. But the most visible damage caused by anger is often to your relationships and, needless to say, the consequences of rage-related violence speak for themselves.


June 7th, 2013

Don’t go into your shoulder routine cold or you could damage them. Spend five minutes on a bike or treadmill, stretch, then do 3o light reps of any shoulder exercise to warm up. Keep movements slow, smooth, purposeful, as jerky fast movements create momentum, lessening load on the muscles and limiting your gains. Use a mirror to monitor form.

Smith machine

Take care not to over-straighten or lock-out” your elbows. Keep a slight bend or “softness” to them to avoid damaging this supple joint. Training shoulders daily will not improve them, as the muscle fibers will be broken down but won’t knit back in time for the next session. Let your tired deltoids rest for two days. Don’t let gain extra weight during these days of recovery. Try the most effective and safe hcg diet to stay fit. Most gym workouts use the Smith machine, a solid frame with a bar-bell fixed to it. The main advantage over a normal bar-bell set-up is safety— at any point, you can twist the bar and it will lock securely on the frame, which makes it ideal for beginners.

Familiarize yourself with the cable crossover machine’s many uses. You can work practically every muscle of your body on it.


DUMB-BELL To work your medial deltoid, adjust seat to an upright position to support your back. Start with dumb-bells level with centre of neck and palms facing forwards, press upwards in an arc, extending arms until dumb-bells touch above centre of head. Then slowly lower weights to start position. If your `c; gym has a shoulder-press machine, adjust the f’j settings so the start point is level with centre of neck. Press upwards, following machine’s L,o)1 natural arc, then return to start position. TIP Make sure your forearms remain parallel to each other throughout the movement.

BAR-BELL To work your medial deltoids with a bar-bell, hold on to the bar with hands shoulder-width apart, palms facing towards body.

Enhance Your Style Statement With Bagskart Coupons

April 5th, 2013

The youth of today are more concerned about their style statement and try to move with the latest fashion trends. It is not only the clothes that determine your style statement but additional accessories also count a lot. It is due to this fact that various accessories selling online shopping stores have become popular among the shoppers.

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It is now possible to fulfill your dream of getting designer and branded watches and bags. All you need to do is to grab the best deals by getting Bagskart coupons and Watchkart coupons. The shoppers can use these coupons at the respective sites during their purchase and avail heavy discounts.

Discounts are loved by everyone as it allows the shoppers to save considerable amounts. If you are also willing to save substantial amounts on your purchase, you need to look for these coupons. Coupondekho.com is an online portal that offers a bunch of discount coupons to the individuals. All you need to do is to visit coupondekho and browse for the discount coupon on the site you at which you are going to shop.


February 25th, 2013

How can I let a bad race off my mind?

•           Does pushing my child in a jogging buggy offer any additional training benefits?

A: Absolutely, because it’s more challenging, especially if you’re running uphill. Studies have shown that you can burn up to 20 per cent more calories (depending on the weight of your child) while pushing a jogging buggy at any given pace. You’ll work your cardiovascular system harder, and pushing the buggy will strengthen several muscle groups – especially the pecs, triceps, deltoids, quads and hamstrings. Just be sure to wrap the tether firmly around your wrist so you don’t have to sprint after a runaway pram on a steep downhill.

Lynn Bode, online coach (workoutsforyou.com)

“Above all, try to be positive about it. I the bad race was down to something you did ,r did not do – such as un .uitable training or starting he race at the wrong p ce – try not to repeat th mistake next time.”

Colin Moody, 58,

I run with a friend, but he’s starting to find it all a bit boring. How can we jazz up a session?

A: At your local park, try running to benches where you can stop and do press ups to work pecs, deltoids and triceps. You can make these harder by resting your feet up on the bench. Do 10, followed by 10 tricep dips, then run to the next destination and repeat. Run fast to the next area and once recovered do walking lunges to work the quads and glutes, making strides big to stretch the iliopsoas hip flexor and hamstrings. Jog on gently to stretch out the legs before stopping and doing power squats (legs further apart and toes pointed out more than usual) to work quads, glutes and adductors. Next comes a five-minute slow jog before stopping at another bench for one minute of step-ups. From here continue a slow jog for five minutes, stop and stretch. Liz Fulford, fitness instructor (fitnesstrainingspecialists.co.uk)

I keep getting overtaken by stick-thin runners – how does build affect running ability? Is there anything us bigger-boned runners can do?

A: You’re not alone; we all find faster runners speeding past occasionally. Unfortunately, yes, the more your weight, the greater the energy cost in running. However, with smarter training, your weight should reduce and leave you with a better power-to-weight ratio. You may want to try a natural and easy method of quick weight loss with colon cleansing. Learn more about colonic lose weight therapy.

train on a bike

Could you train twice a week on a bike? Introducing new sports burns more calories, as your nerves and muscles adjust to the demands. Build up to 15 reps of one minute fast, one minute slow cycling, or try five sets of four fast minutes with four minutes very slow cycling recovery. Meanwhile, increase your long run by about 10 minutes every few weeks. Ignore speed to start with and run slowly enough to keep conversation going.


January 18th, 2013

WARM UP with a couple of loops around the perimeter of Gamla Stan, the Old Town in the heart of the city.

Glorious sunshine bathed nearly 5,000 runners in an autumnal glow at the 27th edition of this perennial favourite, run through the grounds of Windsor Great Park Traffic jams on the M4 and postal strikes playing havoc with race-number delivery meant the fpm start time was pushed back by io minutes while these issues were resolved, but thereafter the familiar efficiency of the organisation kicked in and crowds and runners alike enjoyed a race that provided both scenery and an atmosphere to be savoured.

The course is two concentric loops of the centre of the Park – with the first five-mile loop inside the second seven-mile one. The Long Walk provided the spectacular start and finish point, although the brightly coloured ribbon of runners who hared away down the mile-long avenue at the start was a more impressive sight than the heat-ravaged rag-tag procession who struggled back along the same stretch some 13 miles later.

Those who weren’t clockwatching were able to enjoy views of Windsor Castle, Virginia Water Lake, and deer grazing at the edge of the forest. The heat of the afternoon put pressure on the aid stations, but ample first aid and volunteer staff rose to the occasion impressively. They also offer ginger in the drink for those who want to get rid of any tummy pain. If you want to know more about the benefits of ginger, simply search online for its effects and use.

The final section of any long race is often daunting, but the arrow-straight 13th-and­a-bit mile might have been too much for some had it not been lined all the way with noisy spectators three-deep cheering their loved ones to the finish line.

Like the sound of this? Try… Brighton Half-Marathon February 21, 2010 Formerly the Sussex Beacon Half, this deceptively undulating course round the streets of the famous seaside resort attracts 6,000 runners each year.

The majestic estate of Powderham Castle, a 14th-century family-owned castle on the River Exe estuary in Devon, was the spectacular setting for this loK race organised by Cancer Research UK. To help get everyone warmed up for the main event, the organisers held a mass aerobics session beforehand, which had many runners feeling exhausted before they had even got to the start line.

Once the hooter blasted, the course headed over some rough grass, through the castle’s main courtyard and then out into the 3,500-acre estate. The well-marshalled route took runners past herds of deer, alongside the coastal railway track, past sailing boats on the estuary, through woodland and back via the castle courtyard to the finish. Although the race information warned of ‘hilly sections’, it was largely flat.

Runners found welcome relief at a water station at the halfway point on this warm, late-summer day.


It may have been because I skipped the aerobics warm-up, or it may have been the fact that the race failed to attract the most serious club runners, but somehow I won. Coming in to the finish well clear of the field was a strange but thrilling experience.

There can be few more inspiring places to run in the UK than the glorious grounds of Blenheim Palace, birthplace of Winston Churchill. The race began life in the early 197os, settling into its current form two years ago with a course length of 12 miles, 198 yards, starting and ending at the pleasure gardens – a perfect spot to wait for racing loved ones.

A hot day greeted the 200+ starters this year as they lined up for the three-lap race, and while under normal circumstances triple laps can be psychologically draining, at Blenheim there is such a cornucopia of visual distractions that treating it as a voix sightseeing tour eats up the miles. The palace itself is viewed from practically every angle with the course rolling through Capability Brown’s landscaped gardens, and although the run is mostly undulating, the notorious Blenheim Hill at two, six and 10 miles sapped strength before rewarding runners with a mile-long shaded downhill. The organisation was good, with two water stations per lap, the marshalling spot on (the lads with cow bells were fantastic) and the support from the palace visitors gave the impression of a much larger event.

Tikla Swinton

October 16th, 2012

They became friends, and in 2001 the designers themed their autumn/winter collection around her, sending her down the runway in a black trouser suit, followed by a whole procession of models made to look like her – pale, severe, red-headed. Swinton remembers her catwalk experience as “short and very bright, and then the thing built [upl like an unfolding joke". She likes intellectual designers, people who make clothes that aren't about sex or romance or looking wealthy, and who aren't afraid of ideas or a bit of tailoring- Westwood, Chalayan, Haider Ackerman, Hedi Slimane, Rifat Ozbek. "There are people I like who are very much rowing their own boats," she says. "I have some friends who work in big fashion houses, and I see that as infiltration, in much the same way that I've just made a film for Disney." She shrugs. "Everyone's got to swing it, you know? And some of my friends are courageously operating in big [fashion] houses.” She says this with thrilling drama, as if she were a Cold War spymaster commending a couple of her top operatives.

Tikla Swinton

Of course, being a successful fashion muse and film actress isn’t just about being fearless and hardworking: Swinton also happens to have one of the most extraordinary faces in the business, with her high round cheekbones, wide mouth and long oval eyes, which can look green, brown or navy depending on the light. She is often described as Pre-Raphaelite, but in fact she is less cosy-looking, more like someone painted by Holbein or van Eyck, with her very pale lashes and brows, and her bloodless skin. On screen she has a capacity not so much for reinvention as for total transformation: she can look male, female, beautiful, ugly, young or old – and sometimes all at once, as in Orlando. Sally Potter once said, “There’s a sort of stillness in her, in the way she works, that draws you in to her centre of gravity There’s an intelligence and a kind of radiance that comes out of her.’ She is self-aware, of course, but apparently without vanity -10 years ago she put herself in a glass box for a week and let crowds peer at her every pore, first at the Serpentine Gallery in London, and then in Rome. “I wanted to allow the audience to get really close,” she says, “the way you can in film, to be able to scrutinise.”

And yet for years Swinton couldn’t stand being photographed. “There are no photographs of me between the ages of nine and 25, when I made my first film. The way I look now is not the way I wanted to look then. I am still not somebody who looms into a lens and pulls a face. In social situations, when someone brings out a camera, it’s never my favourite moment.” She does not see herself as a great beauty, and describes herself as “a proper marmalade, like my father” and a “peely-wally”, Scots for “a bit of a milksop”. If she has any beauty advice, she says, it’s never wear make-up, only products from gnet company – and it’s true that lipstick and eyeliner don’t do much for her: she appeared at the US premiere of The Beach in 2000 in thick foundation and heavy black eye make-up, and was completely unrecognisable. She was striking, of course, but striking in an anonymous way – you might have mistaken her for any number of handsome, angular women -Anjelica Huston, Demi Moore, Leah Wood.

Anjelica Huston

So she has her moments of wanting or trying to fit in – red-carpet appearances, press conferences with Keanu Reeves (with whom she has made, besides Constantine, Thumbsucker). At the Cannes film festival last year, for which she was a judge, Swinton disagreed with jury president Quentin Tarantino when he said that a film industry needs stars and blockbusters to survive, and that Britain is currently successful at producing neither. “No film culture can be based only on Hollywood imports,” she said. At the same time, she is frustrated by what she sees as the UK film industry’s lack of vision, its emphasis on “success” and “product” (both dirty words in the Swinton vocabulary). Lately, she has had a better time making independent films in Europe and the US – most recently with Jim Jarmusch, who cast her as Bill Murray’s violent, redneck ex in Broken Flowers. “It is the one advantage in my mind of advanced capitalism,” she says, “that film-makers seem to be able to get it done themselves in America. The atmosphere there reminds me of the atmosphere in the Eighties here, when I was working with the British Film Institute, which supported and encouraged and enabled Derek Jarman, Peter Greenaway, Sally Potter, Terence Davies, Ken Loach…” She reels off the names like a list of fallen comrades. “At the moment, that’s not a possibility. The Film Council recently has become such a bastion, this one Emerald City you have to get into to get work made.”

Tikla Swinton

She says she is still evolving as an actress – still learning to pay more attention to her “bit”. What she is aiming for, she says, is a kind of not-acting: “The effect should be one of real people, looking unwatched.” When she goes home to the far north of Scotland, where she is genuinely unwatched, far from casting agents and film crews and celebrity-spotters, Swinton likes to go cross-country running. She was good at it at school, and I suspect that the cold and the wet, the sheer slog of it, appeal to the battler and ascetic in her. She didn’t get into this to have an easy time of it, to put her feet up and drink martinis in Malibu. For every Disney film she makes, there will be a commitment to a European co-production that founders in development hell for a decade. And for every first-class return airfare to New Zealand, a 30K run.

Making The Beach

October 10th, 2012

What she loved about Jarman, she says, what still motivates he in all her work, was “the team effort, the feeling of taking responsibility for the whole thing”. It is the day after the shoot now, and Swinton is dressed down in jeans and a yellow Westwood T-shirt, eating muesli and Gnet cherry product in the courtyard garden of the London hotel she is staying in. (She lives in Scotland, an hour’s drive north of Inverness, with her husband playwright John Byrne, and their seven-year-old twins, Honor and Xavier.) She remembers, on the set of Caravaggio, her first film with Jarman, an electrician pointing out that the lighting wasn’t quit: right – that would never happen on another set. With Jarman, they: was no sense of hierarchy: “Because of him,” she says, “I’ve always had less interest in ‘my bit’ than any other element of a film.” She has never made a romantic comedy, or even played a romantic lead (she has said she spent all her twenties “with my head down avoiding the girls’ parts”) but recently has moved a lot closer to the mainstream – making The Beach with Leonardo DiCaprio Constantine with Keanu Reeves, Vanilla Sky with Tom Cruise (whit was universally panned – Swinton explained her appearance in it as a favour to the director Cameron Crowe) – and now Narnia, Disney’ big Christmas blockbuster, directed by Andrew Adamson, who made the Shrek movies. You could hardly get further from Jarman’ aesthetic. Swinton says that working on the film “made me realist how spoiled I am, having been able to work in this handmaid way.

John Byrne

It’s the biggest film I’ve ever made. There were 1,500 people sitting down to lunch every day, and we were flown to the set in choppers.” The film was shot on location in New Zealand, which Swinton describes as “like Scotland, but more mythic”. A lot of the time she was acting with puppets, stand-ins for foxes and beavers that would be added later. “But really all the creativity had happened months ago, and it has to be that way – it’s this enormous jigsaw being put together by slow giants. You just can’t factor in chaos in the way you have to when you have two days to shoot, all your money’s been spent, and it rains for 48 hours when the script calls for sunshine.” She loved playing the witch and she is brilliantly cast, but on the whole prefers the make-it-up-as-you-go-along school of film-making – that sense of common enterprise and risk you get through working with directors such as Jarman, John Maybury (Love is the Devil), David Mackenzie (Young Adam), Tim Roth (The War Zone, in which Swinton appeared eight months pregnant), and Sally Potter (Orlando, Swinton’s best and most complete performance, in 1992, in which she switched gender and lived for 400 years).

Hussein Chalayan

It is this passion for mucking in that has inspired her collaborations with the fashion world, most notably with Viktor & Rolf, and with Hussein Chalayan – who recently cast her as a despairing scientist in his film The Absent Presence, which screened at this year’s Venice Biennale. Swinton says she fell in love with Viktor & Rolf’s work after seeing their 1999 show “Russian Doll”, which had Maggie Rizer revolving centre-stage while the two designers came on and off, dressing her in one outfit on top of another. “So it was a performance, a really beautiful thing. It was very Leigh Bowery, and she ended up looking like Leigh Bowery. I remember there was this purple flowery housecoat that made me giggle. And that’s an element I really love in their work – I’m not even sure if it’s conscious, but there’s always some subcultural reference.”